Chemical Trade - The Backbone of Agricultural Development
Over long time, human meals and clothing depended mainly on agriculture. While ever since the ancient time, agriculture had always relied on plenty of human labor, which was subject to varied kinds of natural conditions. So the development of agriculture was very slow. During the nineteenth century, the usage of agricultural machinery gradually improved the working conditions. Nonetheless, in agricultural production, it was the application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides that really increased the agricultural output in per unit area.
Practice shows that, amongst all of the measures to increase the agricultural production, the function played by chemical fertilizers is 40% to 65%. On the basis of the booming within the petrochemical business, synthetic ammonia and urea have realized large-scale production, which makes the output of chemical fertilizer occupy a large proportion within the chemical products. In 1985, the total output of chemical fertilizer in the world amounted to approximately a hundred and forty million ton, which made it grow to be one of many bulk chemical products. Lately, the development of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer and trace components fertilizer has further meet the demands of different soil buildings and different crops.
In the early interval, folks used natural animals, plants and minerals to stop and treat crop pests and diseases. Until the late 19th century, after the formation of recent chemical trade, folks began to make use of arsenic preparation to kill beetles on potato, and use Bordeaux mixture to forestall and deal with downy mildew on grapes, so that agriculture started a new period of chemical prevention and treatment. Throughout the Nineteen Forties, lots of pesticides and herbicides, resembling natural chlorine, organic phosphorus, were produced and widely used in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and public health. However, among the pesticides throughout this interval were rich in residues or poison, which caused ecological air pollution, in order that they had been banned by many countries.
In recent years, a number of efficient, low-residue, low-toxicity pesticides have been developed, including pyrethroid, which is a bionic pesticide and will not pollute the environment. It has been put into industrial production. Because of this, bio-pesticides have develop into essentially the most active areas in pesticide research currently.
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